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You can know about the story of Polala Amavasya Here
The story goes this way:
Once there used to live seven brothers. All of them had children. The wives of all the seven brothers wished to perform the Polala Amavasysa Vratham. But the kid of the last brother dies and hence all of them were unable to perform the Vrat. As if someone dies in a house, the whole family cannot perform any Vratams or celebrate any festivals.
This process continued for six years. And each year the kid of the last brother used to die. On the seventh year also, when the kid of the seventh brother dies, the wife of the seventh brother fears that the wives of other brothers would scold her and accuse of her being the reason for they not being able to perform the Vrat, she hides the dead body of the kid in the home and goes to perform the Vrat.
In the night after the Vrat, the wife of the seventh brother takes the dead kid on her shoulder to the Poleramma temple on the outskirts. She cries looking at her dead kid. In the mean time the Goddess Polerama who has just started towards the village for patrolling, sees the seventh brothers wife and asks the reason for her worry.
The wife replies that, this the body of her seventh dead son and every year her sons have been dying for the past seven years because of which she or the wives of other brothers were not able to perform the Polala Amavasya Vratam. This year she did not inform the death of her seventh son and performed the Vrat along with others. She brought the dead kid here and was crying.
The Goddess felt sad for her and showed mercy on her. She gave her some Akshintalu (Turmeric rice grains) and asked her to sprinkle them in the place where she had buried the other kids and call them by their names.
The seventh brother’s wife, did as told by the Goddess. As she called out the name after sprinkling the Akshintalu(holy Rice), each of her son came alive.
She returned home with all the seven kids. Everyone asked how she was able to get her seven kids back? She narrated the whole story of what happened.
From that day onwards, everyone in the village started performing the Polala Amavasya Vratam.
*This vrata is performed on Sravana Bhula amavasya -The last day in the lunar month of Sravana. All married women, perform this vrata for the wellbeing of their children. Yam plant or yam is worshipped as goddess POLERAMMA. Gaarelu,boorelu and soup(pulusu) of seven vegetables are prepared for the offering. A washerwomen or a dog is supposed to be fed today.
The significance, procedure and other details can be read Here